AI And Robotics - Fundamental Issues And Perspectives



    An Overview


    On the one hand, the area of AI has produced a diverse range of theoretical methods and frameworks, and on the other, more remarkable practical applications. 


    Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to improve science and society in every field. 


    • It has the potential to assist us in overcoming some of our cognitive limits and solving difficult issues. 
    • Combinations of AI/robotics and brain–computer interfaces in health care, for example, are already providing unique assistance to patients with sensory or motor impairments and facilitating caretaking of patients with disabilities. 
    • AI may bring about significant changes in education and ease access to information by offering new instruments for knowledge acquisition
    • There may also be synergies resulting from robot-to-robot contact, as well as synergies resulting from people and robots working together on tasks. 

    • While massive quantities of data pose a barrier to human cognitive skills, Big Data offers science and the humanities new possibilities. 
      • Big Data has significant translational potential in fields such as medicine, public health, education, and the management of complex systems in the biosphere, geosphere, and economy. 
      • However, Big Data research is empiricist in nature, and it pushes us to uncover the underlying causal processes that generate patterns. 

    • Furthermore, whether the focus on AI's suprahuman capabilities for computing and compilation obscures the many limits of existing artificial systems remains an issue. 
    • Furthermore, there are unsolved data ownership problems that must be addressed via transparent institutional structures. 


    Basic Ideas Of AI/Robotics And Cognition Are Treated – From Many And Often Opposing Viewpoints. 




    The issue "may robots be conscious?" is then addressed from the viewpoint of cognitive neuroscience of consciousness, and from a philosophical perspective. 


    • The topic of whether robots might theoretically achieve characteristics such as consciousness is one of the fundamental problems in AI/robotics. 
    • This is presently being discussed from the viewpoints of natural science, social theory, and philosophy; as a result, it remains an unsolved problem, owing to the many different meanings of "consciousness." 



    It should come as no surprise that we can not take a unified position on the fundamental problem of robot consciousness or on a robotic form of personhood. 

    Rather, the goal is to bring the various viewpoints together. 


    • Robots cannot be considered people, according to the majority of participants, thus they will not and should not be free agents or have rights. 
    • Some believe that "command and control" concepts are inappropriate for human–robotic interactions, while others wonder whether "electronic citizenship" should be addressed. 




    According To Christian Philosophy And Theology, The Human Soul Is "Imago Dei."



    This is the philosophical underpinning that human beings are free and capable of ethical consciousness. 


    • Human beings are spiritual creatures whose essence transcends corporeality, notwithstanding their material roots. 
    • They are imperishable, “incorruptible,” or “immortal” in theological terminology, and are called to a completeness in God that goes beyond what the material world can provide. 
    • As a result, neither AI nor robots can be regarded people, and therefore robots will not and should not have human freedom; they lack a spiritual soul and cannot be called "images of God." 
    • They may, however, be "images of human people," since they are produced by humans to serve as their tools for the betterment of humanity. 




    AI/Robot– Human Interactions From Religious, Social Science, Legal, And Philosophical Viewpoints.




    AI Agents That Are Intelligent. 



    AI's rapid advancement in recent years also explains its philosophical underpinnings. 


    • The issue of induction, or the extraction of rules from instances, which raises the question of what models of the data generation process a learning agent should consider. 
    • It is essential to investigate the idea of all potential models from a mathematical and computational point of view.
    • By identifying the sources of observed data, effective universal induction may play a significant role in causal learning

    There is a line of study in machine learning research that attempts to establish fundamental reasons for the construction of cognitive agents. 


    • Such explanations would allow the formulation of theorems describing the capabilities and limits of intelligent entities. 
    • In order to accomplish objectives, cognitive agents operate in an open, partly or fully unknown environment. 
    • Agents, environments, incentives, local scores, global scores, the precise model of interaction between agents and environments, and a definition of the available computing resources of agents and environments are all key elements for a fundamental framework for AI. 

    An intelligent agent, is one that can accomplish objectives in a variety of situations. 


    • The representation and processing of ambiguous information is a crucial component of learning through experience. 
    • There is no nontrivial logical inference that can be derived from the past for any future occurrence in the absence of deterministic assumptions about the universe. 
    • As a result, it's worth looking at the structure of uncertainty as a separate issue. 


    Some recent findings show a strong link between learnability and provability, reducing the issue of what can be learnt successfully to mathematical fundamental concerns about set existence axioms. 


    • To demonstrate the consequences of machine learning frameworks, we use findings from "reverse mathematics," a branch of mathematical logic that analyzes theorems with reference to the set of existence axioms required to prove them. 
    • We emphasize that artificial intelligence has progressed to the point that ethical problems and the effect on society have become urgent concerns, and they emphasize the need of algorithmic openness, accountability, and unbiasedness. 
    • Basic mathematical research has few, if any, ethical concerns until recently. 
    • Given the importance of mathematicians and software designers in AI research, it is critical that they think about the ethical implications of their work. 

    In view of the growing concerns about the reliability of autonomous systems, AI developers have a responsibility—one that should ideally become a legal obligation—to build trustworthy and controlled robot systems.




    AI And Consciousness.



    We can compare robots to brains, pointing out that both animals and robots need an internal model of the limited world in which they operate, as well as the ability to adapt their actions to the circumstances of that environment in order to complete their jobs. 


    • As a result, although they may seem to face comparable problems, this emphasizes that the computational methods used to address these challenges vary between natural and artificial systems. 
    • It is premature to debate whether artificial systems can learn to perform tasks that humans would consider deliberate and aware, or if artificial beings can be called moral actors who bear responsibility for their acts. a singer. 
    • The debate over whether computers can ever be aware must be founded on understanding how consciousness develops in the human brain. 



    We can propose that the term "consciousness" refers to two distinct types of information-processing computations in the brain: 


    1. first, information selection for global broadcasting consciousness in the first sense, 
    2. and second, self-monitoring of those computations, leading to a subjective sense of certainty or error consciousness in the second sense. 


    Existing AI/robotics mainly execute calculations that are comparable to what the human brain does subconsciously. 


    • They argue, however, that a machine having consciousness in the first and second senses, as described above, would act as if it were aware. 
    • Although centuries of philosophical dualism have led us to consider consciousness as unreducible to physical interactions, the empirical evidence is compatible with the possibility that consciousness arises from nothing more than specific computations, they acknowledge that such a functional definition of consciousness may leave some unsatisfied. 
    • It's possible that the various conceptions and definitions of consciousness are what make these view points distinct.


    The long-term predictions for machines' causal learning capacities and cognition, as well as differently based viewpoint, seem to be consistent with the awareness definitions. 


    On the other hand “could a robot be conscious?” 

    We may respond with a resounding “no,” taking  teachings selectively from philosophy. 

    The human being is the only place where ethical discovery may take place. 



    “Questions about what we should do as morally equipped beings susceptible to normative guidance are mainly based on our synchronically and diachronically changing responses to the issue of "who we are." 

    Robots are not and cannot be aware, “if consciousness is what I believe it to be: a systemic component of the animal-environment relationship.” 


    ~  Jai Krishna Ponnappan 


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